Country survey: military expenditure and defence policy in Norway 1970?2013
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This article examines military expenditure and defence policy in Norway from 1970 to 2013. Until 1990 Norwegian military expenditure remained between 2.5 and 3.0 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Despite constant GDP shares, the military expenditure could not sustain a large and properly armed mobilization army. The constant nominal defence budgets of the 1990s accentuated the Norwegian Armed Forces' underlying imbalance between tasks, structure and budget. Around year 2000, large organizational reforms were effectuated, in which costs, the number of man-years, and underlying imbalances between tasks, structure and budget were reduced. Military expenditure increased in nominal terms between 2003 and 2013, while real military expenditure remained practically constant.
Johnson, Alexander Urnes; Hove, Kjetil Hatlebakk; Lillekvelland, Tobias. Country survey: military expenditure and defence policy in Norway 1970?2013. Defence and Peace Economics 2017 ;Volum 28.(6) s. 669-685