Risk Assessment of Sea Dumped Conventional Munitions
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Energetic compounds from dumped ammunition are toxic to aquatic organisms. Leakage of ammunition residues will occur when the bombshells are broken and the energetic compounds come into contact with water. The munitions compounds have a complex behavior in the environment, particularly in the sediment-water phase, and the calculation of safety levels are dependent on choice of methodology. Estimated sediment quality benchmark levels combined with multi-increment sampling strategy provide the most proper tool for performing ecological risk assessment at a dump site. Dumped munitions may be located in areas, where shellfish, invertebrates, and benthic or pelagic fish are consumed by humans. A monitoring program for early warning of potential contaminants in the vicinity of fish farms could be conducted by passive samplers for explosives. Further development of both sample procedures and analytical methods to increase the quality of the chemical analyses are encouraged.
Voie, Øyvind Albert; Mariussen, Espen. Risk Assessment of Sea Dumped Conventional Munitions. Propellants, explosives, pyrotechnics 2016