On the Big Bang Cosmology as a Kinematic Event in Newtonian Cosmology Modified by Dark Energy
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The concepts dark matter and dark energy are commonly used to explain the universe. The dark energy can be conceived as a property of vacuum or the ether. However, a quite different but also common approach is to modify the equations of gravity. Besides the cosmological constant, modifying the Einstein equations is mathematically challenging within the traditional framework of metric theories of gravity. Such an approach is mathematically much easier within the Newtonian framework such as for example utilized for MOND; i.e. a specific modification of the Newtonian dynamics whenever the gravitational acceleration falls below a critical value. In this article we apply that the vacuum energy (LIVE) in addition to applying a negative pressure of the universe also modifies gravity. We modify gravity from the well known concept of Newtonian cosmology of an isotropic and homogeneous expanding universe. We modify gravity by applying an S^3 space instead of E^3 as background geometry in accordance with some newly published quasi metric theories.
Moxnes, John Fredrik; Hausken, Kjell. On the Big Bang Cosmology as a Kinematic Event in Newtonian Cosmology Modified by Dark Energy. Advanced Studies in Theoretical Physics 2012 ;Volum 6.(13) s. 629-641