Propagation and scattering effects in underwater acoustic communication channels
Systematic measurements were performed to characterize shallow-water acoustic propagation channels for applications in the field of underwater communications. The survey was conducted in northern Europe and covers the continental shelf, Norwegian fjords, a sheltered bay, a channel, and the Baltic Sea. The measurements were performed in various frequency bands between 2 and 32 kHz. The outcome of the study is a variety of channels that differ in many ways, defying any attempt to define a typical acoustic communication channel. Miscellaneous forward propagation effects are presented, which are relevant to channel models for the design of modulation schemes, network protocols, and simulation environments.
Walree, Paul van. Propagation and scattering effects in underwater acoustic communication channels. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 2013 ;Volum 38.(4) s. 614-631