Militære installasjonar som terrormål i fredstid? - ein gjennomgang av faktiske terroranslag mot militære installasjonar på 1990-talet
This short study examines empirical examples of attacks on permanent military installations and bases by insurgent and terrorist groups during the 1990s, focusing on incidents, which took place in democratic countries or against democratic countries’ military bases abroad. It lists a range of motives by the perpetrating groups, and the spectrum of weapons used in the attacks. The study shows that only a small fraction of the total number of terrorist attacks have been directed against permanent military installations. In most cases the purpose has been to threaten, injure or assassinate military personell, not disrupt or disable physical military infrastructure. The United States’ and to a lesser extent British military bases, appear to be far more exposed to terrorist attacks than those of other democratic countries. Motives by the perpetrating groups range from general grievances over foreign military presence (the most common cause of attack), opposition to ‘foreign’ rule by separatist movements, and opposition to the symbols of world capitalism by leftwing ideological movements, to more case-specific grievances such as protests against Western participation in the Gulf war in 1991. Weapons used by terrorist groups in the attacks span the whole range of small arms and bombs — from small firebombs to huge multi-tons truck bombs. On some occasions, mortars, rocket propelled grenades and light anti-tank weapons have been used. We have recorded only one (unsuccessful) attack with non-conventional weapons on military installations. The study concludes that Norwegian military bases, frequented by British and American personnel deserve extra attention from anti-terrorist agencies.