Forsøk med hvitt fosfor røykgranater med nærhetsbrannrør og anslagsbrannrør - vurdering av miljømessige forhold og røykskjermingsegenskaper
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The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) has conducted firings of white phosphorus smoke grenades with proximity and impact fuses in order to evaluate the differences in smoke screen properties, creation of impact craters and contamination of white phosphorus. The creation of impact craters is strongly reduced when the proximity fuses are used. The artillery shells with proximity fuse detonate some metres above the ground. This causes a better spreading of the white phosphorus particles which results in an increased smoke formation. Better burning of the white phosphorus yields less particles on the ground and the contamination is reduced.