A comparison of measurements and predictions of HF groundwave propagation
The field-strength of HF groundwave was logged for 6 different locations in the south-eastern part of Norway. Results were compared to models that take terrain elevation and ground conductivity/permittivity as input parameters. Performance of models was analysed and on this basis, and a simple model was recommended. It was found that the terrain profile is important even for frequencies in the lower HF range for terrain typical of Norway. For land-based paths, ground electrical parameters are highly important, and further work on proper identification of these is recommended.