Synthetic aperture sonar signal processing : results from INSAS-2000
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This report presents signal processing techniques particularly suited for interferometric Synthetic Aperture Sonar (SAS) systems on-board Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) (or other platforms carrying high grade navigation systems). The signal processing is applied to data collected in a controlled rail experiment at Elba Island, Italy, by SACLANTCEN, QinetiQ and FFI, using a wideband interferometric SAS and an Inertial Navigation System (INS). We evaluate different strategies in fusing sonar micronavigation by the Displaced Phase Center Antenna (DPCA) technique with Aided INS (AINS). We obtain highest navigation accuracy using DPCA as aiding sensor into the AINS, then using raw DPCA surge and sway in combination with the AINS attitude and position. Coarse cross correlation based bathymetry and full resolution interferometry (based on the interferogram) is tested on the full swath and objects. Coarse bathymetry is more reliable than the interferogram technique. Phase wraparounds are avoided by estimating the coarse bathymetry first, then using the full resolution phase estimates as correction. Although much work remains, this technique does show a clear potential in improving object classification ability.