Helse- og miljømessige konsekvenser ved Forsvarets bruk av røykammunisjon med hvitt fosfor
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Literature about the toxic, physical and chemical properties of white phosphorus is studied to assess the health and environmental consequences from the use of white phosphorus ammunition. Information from the Norwegian Military Defence indicate that wet areas and areas covered with snow are avoided when the field of fire for white phosphorus ammunition is selected. The amount of white phosphorus ammunition used is small, and shooting exercises do not cause exposure of humans from white phosphorus smoke. Clearing of unexploded shells may represent a risk of exposure from white phosphorus if adequate protective gear not is used. Due to minimal exposure of humans for white phosphorus the health risk associated with the use of such ammunition is neglectable. The fields of fire where white phosphorus ammunition is used in Norway are relatively dry, and therefore most of the white phosphorus will react with air and produce phosphoric acid. It is therefore only a very small fraction of white phosphorus that will remain on the surface. Ducks and swans are rare in these areas. The deposit of phosphorus can cause an increased growth of plants and algae and acidify. This is only expected to give local effects and the use of white phosphorus ammunition is therefore considered not to cause significant environmental effects.