Penetration into modular targets
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Penetration into modular targets (i.e. a wall or similar structure consisting of several target blocks) is examined using a variety of methods. Full Autodyn-3D simulations are performed and supported by analytical calculations. Both corner impacts (near the edge of a block) and joint impacts (at the intersection between blocks) are considered. It is found that the penetration depth may increase considerably in both cases, although in certain situations the projectile may be deflected away from the target. It is recommended that the gap between the various modules should be as little as possible, in which case it is seen that boundary effects will be negligible. In a real design, the probability of a direct hit exactly at a joint will be quite low. Furthermore, adjacent modules will often have to be be fixed to each other by some mechanical means, which can offer some additional protection. These issues should be included in a design of modular protection measures.