Fusing of a continuous output PDR algorithm with an ultrasonic positioning system
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The availability of inertial navigation sensors in smartphones has facilitated the development of pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) models on a large scale. These models often consist of a step detection algorithm combined with a heading estimation routine. Common approaches to step detection include searching for peaks/valleys in the acceleration signal, principle frequency estimation, and machine learning techniques. Since the sensors embedded in smart devices are prone to noise, the position error grows unbounded if unchecked and requires periodical corrections based on external measurements. In this work, we propose a novel step detection algorithm based on sine-wave approximation of the acceleration signal. This method detects step fractions as well as full steps, which allows for continuous and real-time updates. The step detection algorithm is combined with a heading estimation routine described in our previous work to obtain a stand-alone PDR model. To mitigate error accumulation, we fuse the proposed model with position and heading measurements provided by a commercial indoor positioning system based on ultrasound. We evaluate the performance of the PDR and fused model in an open office environment, by walking along a trajectory while carrying a smartphone in hand or in the pocket. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the sine-wave approximation approach to step detection, as well as the expected benefits of fusing PDR with the ultrasonic system.
Thio, Vincent Martello Kwie Hoe; Aparicio, Joaquin; Ånonsen, Kjetil Bergh; Bekkeng, Jan Kenneth; Booij, Wilfred. Fusing of a continuous output PDR algorithm with an ultrasonic positioning system. IEEE Sensors Journal 2021 ;Volum 22.(3) s. 2464-2474