Relative Heading Estimation for Pedestrians Based on the Gravity Vector
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Inertial navigation of pedestrians carrying a smart device is a core component of many indoor positioning systems. While infrastructure-based solutions typically depend on an installation of dedicated hardware, inertial navigation depends only on sensors embedded in the device itself. A single solution can thus be applied to a large range of use cases. This work focuses on one of the main challenges in inertial navigation: user heading estimation. We describe a complete statistical model for heading estimation based on the IMU and magnetometer, assuming a fixed device pose on the pedestrian. Our aim is to provide a stand-alone solution, suitable for direct implementation into a larger positioning framework. The method consists of two consecutive parts. The first focuses on gravity vector estimation based on IMU data. We describe a method for obtaining independent estimates under dynamic conditions, thereby removing the quasi-static initialization phase required by conventional methods. The second part combines the gravity vector with gyro and magnetic measurements to estimate user heading. The proposed method is tested against a motion capture system, and against an alternative method based on attitude. We find that both methods produce similar results in terms of accuracy.
Relative Heading Estimation for Pedestrians Based on the Gravity Vector. IEEE Sensors Journal 2021 ;Volum 21.(6) s. 8218-8225