Very-High-Frequency Single-Input–Multiple-Output Acoustic Communication in Shallow Water
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Very-high-frequency (VHF) underwater acoustic communication is a relatively unexplored terrain, but its importance is expected to increase with the growing demands for larger bandwidths and higher data rates. Knowledge of VHF propagation channels is a prerequisite to achieve high data throughput. In this paper, we present time-variant angle-resolved impulse responses for a set of 250-kHz shallow-water channels. The measurements were performed at high resolution using 64 hydrophones arranged in a line array. The measured channels are characterized by delay spreads of several milliseconds, Doppler spreads of tens of hertz, and angular spreads up to 30∘ . The angular spread is not separable from the delay-Doppler spread, and the impulse response depends heavily on the direction of arrival. Different beamforming and multichannel equalizer strategies are compared for a single-input–multiple-output configuration. A method combining subarray beamforming and multichannel equalization delivers in both noise- and interference-limited scenarios, transferring data at 78.125 kb/s over ranges up to 770 m.
Rudander, Jacob Hiden; Walree, Paul van; Husøy, Thor; Orten, Pål. Very-High-Frequency Single-Input–Multiple-Output Acoustic Communication in Shallow Water. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 2018