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Projected area and drag coefficient of high velocity irregular fragments that rotate or tumble
3 degrees of freedom (DOF) exterior ballistic computer models are used in fragment studies to calculate individual trajectories of each fragment based on drag coefficient and the projected (presented) area in the direction ...
On the study of ricochet and penetration in sand, water and gelatin by spheres, 7.62 mm APM2, and 25?mm projectiles
We examine the ricochet and penetration behavior in sand, water and gelatin by steel spheres, 7.62 mm APM2 and 25 mm projectiles. A threshold impact angle (critical angle) exists beyond which ricochet cannot occur. The ...
Experimental and numerical study of the fragmentation of expanding warhead casings by using different numerical codes and solution techniques
There has been increasing interest in numerical simulations of fragmentation of expanding warheads in 3D. Accordingly there is a pressure on developers of leading commercial codes, such as LS-DYNA, AUTODYN and IMPETUS Afea, ...