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The 3S3 experiment data report - using operational naval sonars to study the effects of continuous active sonar, and source proximity, on sperm whales
The 3S project is an international collaborative effort with the aim to investigate behavioral reactions of cetaceans to naval sonar signals. The objectives of the third phase of the project (3S3) were to investigate if ...
Severity Scoring of Behavioral Responses of Sperm Whales (Physeter macrocephalus) to Novel Continuous versus Conven tional Pulsed Active Sonar
Controlled exposure experiments (CEEs) have demonstrated that naval pulsed active sonar (PAS) can induce costly behavioral responses in cetaceans similar to antipredator responses. New generation continuous active sonars ...